Camarasaurus is among the most common and frequently well-preserved sauropod dinosaurs uncovered. The maximum size of the most common species, C. lentus, was about 15 m (49 ft) in length. The largest species, C. supremus, reached a maximum length of 23 m (75 ft) and, a maximum estimated weight of 47 metric tons (51.8 tons).
The arched skull of Camarasaurus was remarkably square and the blunt snout had many fenestrae, though it was sturdy and is frequently recovered in good condition by paleontologists. The 19-cm-long (7.5-in) teeth were shaped like chisels (spatulate) and arranged evenly along the jaw. The strength of the teeth indicates that Camarasaurus probably ate coarser plant material than the slender-toothed diplodocids.
Each front limb bore five toes, with the inner toe having a large, sharp claw. Like most sauropods, the front limbs were shorter than the hind legs, but the high position of the shoulders meant little slope in the back existed.